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August 16, 2015 11:35 am

Despite Their Merits, Israel’s New Conversion Courts Undermine Jewish Unity

avatar by Pini Dunner

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Chief Rabbi David Lau. Photo: Wiki Commons.

Chief Rabbi David Lau. Photo: Wiki Commons.

A furor has erupted over the establishment of a new conversion court in Israel, which was opened with the blessing and cooperation of some of the giants of Religious Zionism.

Rabbis Shlomo Riskin, Nahum Rabinovich, David Stav, and Yaakov Medan have forcefully declared their support for this innovation, citing the Chief Rabbinate’s refusal to be flexible on the issue of conversions, which has resulted in thousands of immigrants of the former Soviet Union living in Jewish-status limbo. Other key Religious Zionist rabbis – such as Rabbis Dov Lior and Chaim Druckman – have come out in opposition to the move.

Proponents are framing the new Bet Din as a focused attempt to weaken the controlling influence of the haredim over religious affairs in the State of Israel. They claim that the political situation makes it impossible to find an acceptable solution within the infrastructure of the Chief Rabbinate, and that desperate problems require desperate measures.

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My heart is with them, but something about this saga really disturbs me, and notwithstanding their frustration, and the justness of their cause, my own view is that it is a very bad move that could mark a negative watershed in the unfolding story of our one and only Jewish country. Sometimes, even when one is in pain, it pays to take a long view. Decisions taken in the heat of the moment have repercussions that reverberate long afterwards.

This week we marked the 75th anniversary of the death of Vladimir Zev Jabotinsky, the founder of Revisionist Zionism, who died suddenly at the age of 60 while on a visit to the United States. Many adjectives have been used to describe him – visionary, revolutionary, agitator, fanatic, true Zionist – some of them accurate, others not. One thing about him that is not so well known is that he believed in the primacy of Jewish unity. When the Jewish nation faces a choice between the destructive force of internecine conflict, or compromise, compromise must always prevail.

He is widely remembered for advocating a ‘Greater Israel’, to include Transjordan, which often leads to him being portrayed as an anti-Arab racist. What he actually believed was that it would be “utterly impossible to eject the Arabs from Palestine – there will always be two nations in Palestine – which is good enough for me, provided the Jews become the majority.”

He was reviled by the Left in his lifetime, and is reviled by them now, despite his ceaseless efforts to reconcile with his nemesis, David Ben Gurion, culminating in a series of secret meetings in London in 1934, dramatized a couple of years ago in a play by the Israeli writer, A. B. Yehoshua.

His principle disciple was none other than Menachem Begin, later the first non-socialist Prime Minister of Israel. In 1948, David Ben Gurion ordered the nascent IDF to fire on ‘Altalena’ – an Irgun ship carrying badly needed arms for the battle against the Arabs intent on destroying the Jewish State before it even got off the ground.

Thirty-two people were killed – all Jews – and a civil war between Revisionist Jews and Socialist Jews seemed inevitable. But Menachem Begin refused to get sucked into internecine conflict – as Jabotinsky’s disciple, he understood that the unity of the Jewish people was simply too important, and that compromise was the preferred choice. He ordered his followers to hold their fire and the Irgun pledged allegiance to the IDF – the same IDF that had killed their comrades. Begin would later say: “my greatest accomplishment was not retaliating and causing civil war.”

This week Israeli police arrested extremist Jews who are allegedly behind terrorist attacks against Arabs in an attempt to foment violence between Arab and Jew. In an article for the New York Times, Naftali Bennett wrote: “Israel is under attack. This time the threat is not from Iran, Hezbollah or Hamas. It comes from a fringe group within Israel, which needs to be eradicated swiftly and forcefully.”

One might have expected Bennett, who is an emphatic mouthpiece of the right wing nationalist movement in Israel, to defend or at least find an excuse for these individuals. But he understands that rather than furthering the cause of Jews and Zionism, these murderers are a danger to Jews, Judaism, and Israel. A commitment to unity is far more important than supporting individuals whose view you sympathize with, but whose methods will ultimately destroy everything you hold dear.

In the past Torah portion we read about false prophets and how they must be ignored and excised from the community. What is interesting is that the Torah refers to these people as “prophets” who operate from within “your midst”: כִי יָקוּם בְקִרְבְךָ נָבִיא אוֹ חֹלֵם חֲלוֹם וְנָתַן אֵלֶיךָ אוֹת אוֹ מוֹפֵת  – “when there arises in your midst a prophet or a dreamer of dreams who presents you with a sign or a miracle.”

The danger to Jews is not from the outside, but from within. No outside enemy can ultimately undermine us. We do more harm to ourselves than any of our enemies could ever do. Our only hope is unity, achieved on the basis of compromise. If we remain one people, God will stay at our side. The greatest enemies of Jews are Jews. And if any Jews threaten Jewish unity they must be stopped. The alternative is disaster.

I urge all those behind the new conversion courts to reconsider. You are undermining our unity. And to those who sympathize with their cause I say this: hammer away at the Chief Rabbinate until you succeed, which you ultimately will. Begin remained in the opposition for almost thirty years before he became Prime Minister. Perfect solutions require patience and endurance, not rash decisions and grandstanding. Dismantle these new courts and work with the system. It is the only way we can succeed as a people, and that Israel can succeed as a country.

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  • Daniel Goldman

    Rabbi Dunner
    Not clear that you have made the case that the new Beit Din harms unity. This is certainly not the first Beit Din that has acted outside the remit of the Chief Rabbanut, and indeed until about 20 years many city Rabbis in Israel performed conversions with the centralised authority being enforced by the current religious leadership.

    There are of course multiple examples of independent batei din in Israel in multiple fields, Haredi or otherwise. Should they also be closed in your opinion.

    Many people here feel that the separatist views of the Haredi Rabbanut, that has gradually increased its control and severity over the last 20 years is the cause for the lack of Jewish Unity as increasingly large sections of Israeli society see themselves disenfranchised from Judaism.

    Those who have supported this new Beit Din have all worked within and tried to improve matters within the Rabbanut (some for decades). I can assure you that they see this as a last resort, just because they see the ability to bring more Judaism into Israel society, rather than any desire to create disunity.

    It is intolerable that there are tens of thousands of Israelis who see themselves as Jewish (as does the majority of Israeli society) and are not recognised by the religious authorities as Jewish.

    The Rabbanut, under the current halachic authorities does not see this in anyway as their responsibility either halachically or socially. This is reflective of a wider problem that the Rabbanut no longer represents leadership on Jewish matters within society. This is not because there is no thirst.

    • Daniel,
      You are of course right that many Batei Din operate in Israel that do conversions who are not part of the central rabbinate, but you also know that no conversion has any validity in terms of its official recognition unless it is rubber stamped by the central rabbinate. Even a conversion done by a beit din in Bnei Brak, or in Meah Shearim – where no doubt the most stringent demands are made of conversion candidates, well beyond those prescribed by the rabbanut, or indeed by halacha – would not be treated any differently than a conversion executed by a reform rabbi by the Israeli authorities in terms of its official recognition until the rabbinate rubber stamps it.
      You will of course respond that the Bnei Brak/Mea Shearim conversion will always be rubber stamped if that recognition is sought, which is absolutely true. And that is the point. Bnei Brak/Mea Shearim batei din operate in parallel, but not with the intention to disunite. When the need arises they cooperate wholeheartedly with the rabbinate, but in general they live in their own world and service their own needs. They ‘use’ the rabbinate in the same way as the secular Israelis ‘use’ the rabbinate – when they need to. It is an official body of the state with official functions. But they are not actively seeking to undermine an organ of the state.
      This new beit din has been deliberately set up to undermine an official organ of the State of Israel, because over many years this group of rabbis has been unable to wrest the rabbinate from people who have very different ideas as to how Jewish religious affairs should be run in Israel. My argument is that this is a dangerous MO, and one which should be high lighted and reversed. That is what Begin understood. The state will begin to disintegrate if every frustrated group sets up its own group to undermine what it sees as dysfunctional official bodies.
      Work from within, expose corruption, demand change, lobby, rally, win over hearts and minds, fight a political fight – that is the way to go.

  • elisheva

    For the record, I am against bloodshed, but when your enemy knows that you refuse to fight, you will always lose, and there will be bloodshed. The well-intentioned Begin refused to fight, and the Left controls Israel (regardless of who wins the elections), which has lead to the needless deaths of hundreds if not thousands of Jews.

    After reading this article, I came across this:
    http://sultanknish.blogspot.co.il/2015/08/the-ghetto-jew-and-israel.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed:+FromNyToIsraelSultanRevealsTheStoriesBehindTheNews+%28from+NY+to+Israel+Sultan+Reveals+The+Stories+Behind+the+News%29

    I’m all for unity, if it is true unity, but not when it is the Ghetto Jews beating us down into submission.

    Stop apologising already.

  • elisheva

    It’s a big bandwagon.

    There is no proof that any Jew was involved in the Duma murders. There is however proof that the Arab sector is by far the most violent and murderous sector in Israel, including and especially amongst themselves. So in an article about unity, I would expect a bit more circumspection with respect to fellow Jews. If you are incapable of judging favorably, at least withold judgment until the facts have been ascertained.

  • Absolutely agree with you. Kol Hakavod R. Dunner

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