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September 20, 2017 2:15 pm

The Unheard Story: Bulgaria’s Rescue of 50,000 Jews During the Holocaust

avatar by Katrin Gendova

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The Sofia Synagogue in Bulgaria’s capital city. Photo: Vassia Atanassova via Wikimedia Commons.

You have probably heard of “Schindler’s List” — Steven Spielberg’s movie, which brought to life the story of a German member of the Nazi party who saved the lives of more than 1,000 Jews during the Holocaust, by employing them in his factories in occupied Poland.

You may have also heard of the heroic rescue of the Danish Jews: With the help of the Danish government, people and resistance movement, 7,220 out of the 7,800 Jews in that country escaped the Nazis, and found salvation in Sweden.

What’s lesser known is the story of the 50,000 Jews who were saved by Bulgaria.

In his book, Beyond Hitler’s Grasp, Michael Bar-Zohar states that, “For years, Bulgaria’s Communist regime had tried to suppress the real story about [this] rescue for a very simple reason. The Bulgarian rescue had been carried out mostly by Communism’s three worst enemies: the Church, the royal court, and the pro-Fascist politicians. The Communist regime couldn’t admit that, fact because it contradicted its basic beliefs.”

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What’s even more astonishing is that these 50,000 Jews were saved while Bulgaria was actually an ally of Hitler.

Bulgaria gained its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878. Yet the newly independent state did not receive all of the territories that it desired, leaving ethnic Bulgarians outside of its newly-formed borders. In order to gain its territories back, the country allied with Germany, because Hitler promised to help Bulgaria. But that alignment came at a certain price.

The rescue of the Bulgarian Jews was preceded by a series of dark events — especially the loss of 11,000 Jews in Thrace and Macedonia, who were sent to the Nazis, despite the fact that those territories were under Bulgarian administration. This happened because Germany did not acknowledge the annexation of Thrace and Macedonia to Bulgaria. Therefore, none of the Jews living in those areas received Bulgarian citizenship or nationality, making it impossible for the Bulgarian authorities to interfere.

The deportation of the Jews from Thrace and Macedonia alerted Bulgaria to what was about to follow in its country. In March of 1943, trains arrived in Bulgaria to transport all of the Jews straight to a death camp in Treblinka. Arrests began early in the morning, as policemen gathered Jews to await their deportation. However, not a single Jew left the country.

The local Metropolitan Kiril, ordinary Bulgarian citizens and members of the parliament mobilized against the deportation, and succeeded in preventing it.

The head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church played a major role in the rescue, having arrived on the day of the deportation at the railroads where the trains were supposed to depart. Bishop Metropolitan Kiril sent a letter to the king of Bulgaria, pleading for the Jews to be saved. The church also opened its doors and provided shelter for the Bulgarian Jews.

Due to the pressure of the public outcry and the persistence of the bishop, the king canceled the deportation, leaving the trains for Treblinka entirely empty.

Yet that did not stop Hitler from continuing to demand the deportation of the Jews. Months later, he tried again, requesting that all of Bulgaria’s Jewish population be sent to Poland. In response, King Boris told the German leader that the country needed the Jews for labor; he then created labor camps where 20,000 men were sent to work — but remained in the country. The king’s skillful and quick response to Hitler’s demand prevented the second deportation of the Bulgarian Jews to the death camps.

The rescue of the Bulgarian Jews remained a long kept-secret until the end of the communist regime in 1989. Fortunately, documents that recorded details of it were only hidden and locked up — not destroyed. Historians were then able to show the world the bravery of ordinary citizens and the decisive intervention of the Orthodox Church and the king of Bulgaria during the Holocaust.

After the war ended, approximately 96% of the Jewish population in Bulgaria emigrated to Israel. The two countries have shared a special bond ever since. On a recent trip to Israel, former Bulgarian President Rosen Plevneliev said that, “As a relatively new country with cutting edge entrepreneurship that also boasts an ancient history, Israel is attractive to Bulgaria, which is one of the older countries in Europe, with a Jewish community whose roots date back more than 1,300 years.”

In February of 2017, President Plevneliev was given the Friends of Zion Award in recognition of the 50,000 Jews rescued during the Holocaust — and acknowledging that Israel will not forget the lives saved by Bulgaria. With all of its dark and heroic moments, the story of a country that managed to protect its entire Jewish population whilst being an ally to Hitler is one that deserves to be recognized and remembered. Israel does — hopefully the rest of the world will, too.

This article was originally published on the CAMERA blog InFocus.

The opinions presented by Algemeiner bloggers are solely theirs and do not represent those of The Algemeiner, its publishers or editors. If you would like to share your views with a blog post on The Algemeiner, please be in touch through our Contact page.

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  • hi

    1. “Beginning in July 1940, Bulgarian authorities instituted anti-Jewish
    legislation that excluded Jews from public service, prohibited them from
    living in the big cities, and restricted their participation in many
    occupations. The legislation also prohibited marriage between Jews and
    non-Jews.” BUT unlike the other nations of Europe, the Bulgarian people did not
    accept these laws. They did not view the few thousand Jews who lived in
    the country as threats. Former government ministers wrote parliament a
    mocking letter: “Poor Bulgaria! We are seven million people, yet we so
    fear the treachery of 45,000 Jews who hold no positions of
    responsibility at the national level that we need to pass exceptional
    laws to protect ourselves from them 1.”
    Nearly all segments of Bulgarian society opposed the laws, and letters
    of protest poured into parliament and to King Boris.
    2.Bulgaria was not rewarded by the Germans with its former provinces of Macedonia and Thrace. Hitler promised us the land BUT he never kept his promise. This is one of the reasons Bulgaria allied with Germany. The main reason was because we havent been getting along with our neighbouring countrys (Balkan wars) NOT because king Boris was a nazi.
    3.Bulgaria did not save all of its jews, you are right about that. The jews in Macedonia and Thrace never got Bulgarian citizenship BECAUSE BULGARIA NEVER GOT ITS LAND BACK. All of the jews on Bulgarian land were saved thanks to king Boris and Metropolitan Kiril!!

  • Howard Jaeckel

    I post only to say that the other commenters are correct. The were indeed heroic Bulgarians, including most prominently the Metropolitan of the Orthodox Church. But Bulgarian police actively took part in the roundup of Jews in the outlying provinces, and King Boris was totally on board with the deportation of the rest, until public pressure forced him to back down. See https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005451

    It’s dangerous to take one book as an accurate account without consulting other sources.

  • Toby

    It’s easy to do research. Why continue telling lies?

  • Lyna Degen

    Holocaust revisionism doesn’t stand against the truth.

    Meticulous Planning
    By the end of 1941, negotiations between Nazi-German representatives and the Bulgarian government had already begun on the deportation of Jews from the Bulgarian territories. For the next year, antisemitic propaganda, pamphlets and books were distributed throughout Bulgaria. In August 1942, the Commissariat for Jewish Affairs, that supervised all Jewish property and signage was established, and in September Jews were forced to wear the yellow badge. All the while, negotiations between the Bulgarians and the Germans regarding the fate of the Jewish population of Bulgaria were continuing, and in October 1942 discussions regarding their deportation were concluded. On 22 February 1943, Alexandr Belev and Theodor Dannecker – Adolf Eichmann’s representative in Bulgaria – signed an agreement on the initial deportation of 20,000 Jews to “Eastern German Regions” (Poland). The agreement detailed the outbound stations, the number of people, the number of trains and the order in which they were to be loaded. At the first stage, the agreement related to 12,000 Jews from Thrace and Macedonia. This was the only agreement signed between Nazi Germany and another country concerning the deportation of its Jewish populationAfter one week, on 2 March, the Bulgarian government approved the agreement. On the same day, the government also decided that the deportees would lose their Bulgarian citizenship (those Jews in the annexed Bulgarian territories were never citizens – this decision was regarding Bulgarian Jewry to be deported in the first stage); in addition, all property belonging to those deported out of Bulgaria, as well as that of the community, was confiscated.

    Immediately following the signing of the agreement, preparations for the deportation began. Heading the operation throughout Macedonia was Zahari Velkov, with Kiril Stoimenov in charge of the region that included Monastir. http://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/communities/monastir/liquidation.asp

  • David Stephenson

    Why is this story being mentioned only now? It certainly runs counter to Europe’s cherished ideal that Christianity was the driving force behind the Holocaust …