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March 25, 2018 10:36 am

Orthodox Jews Must Allow and Support Secular Education

avatar by Jeremy Rosen

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A Torah scroll. Photo: RabbiSacks.org

One of the biggest challenges that Judaism faces is the Haredi schism. On the one hand, the sect is the most dynamic, fastest growing, most passionately committed and scholarly section of the Jewish world. On the other, it is the most fundamentalist, anti-intellectual, narrow-minded, excessively restrictive sector that refuses to countenance any change, moderation, or amelioration in Jewish law.

And the Haredi world, in almost all cases, does not countenance any serious secular education that might help those who want to find a means of making a living in the world outside.

In my youth the dominant strain, numerically, of UK Anglo Jewry was the United Synagogue. All the big communal synagogues belonged to it. Officers wore top hats. Rabbis or reverends wore canonicals. Services were formal and boring. Most members were hybrids, attesting to Orthodoxy in public — but disregarding it in private.

To its left was the Reform movement. To its right, groups of smaller synagogues. Then there was the Golders Green Beth HaMedrash, which combined its Orthodoxy with a Germanic intellectual tradition, a respect for academic study, and Wissenschaft — the academic analysis of Judaism. It was affectionately known as Munk’s, after its rabbi, who was a member of an illustrious Germanic Orthodox family.

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The community was proud of its motto “Torah im Dereh Eretz“:Torah combined with secular knowledge.” It was the slogan of Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch (1808-1888), who had led the Orthodox Jews of Frankfort in a breakaway from the main community, which he saw drifting towards Reform and assimilation. He campaigned hard for an intellectually rigorous interpretation of traditional Orthodoxy, to offer what he saw as the best of both worlds. He was a powerful essayist and spokesman. He wrote a German commentary on the Torah. He composed Nineteen Letters as a polemic against Reform. His essays on Judaism were published in a volume called Horeb.

Most significantly, he insisted on secular education in his religious school.

His was a remarkable community, until Eastern European Orthodoxy and Hasidic fundamentalism slowly recovered from the impact of the war, flourished, and began the process of becoming more Haredi and less interested in either secular education or rational discourse, and scholarly approaches to traditional texts and sources. Munk’s has, sadly, veered strongly towards the Haredi right.

Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch is sadly missed. His slogan, “Torah im Derek Eretzis,” is mocked and rejected.

The Talmudic term “Dereh Eretz” has two meanings. The one most people associate with it is the Yiddish expression — which means good manners. But the Talmud also uses it to mean earning a livelihood in a totally secular sense (Avot 2:2 and 3:5). This second meaning is what Rav Hirsch meant: “It is good to combine studying Torah with a livelihood, for the effort needed for both will keep a person away from doing the wrong things.” (Pirkei Avot 2:2) This was why Rav Hirsch introduced secular education in his schools.

The Talmud made the study of Torah the pre-eminent expression of Jewish identity and activity. Yet the Torah discusses the relative merits of Torah and Dereh Eretz.

Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai was forced to hide from the Romans in a cave for 12 years, which he spent studying Torah with his son. When he came out of the cave, he could not understand how ordinary people were going about their business, plowing and sowing. He wanted to destroy them. A heavenly voice told him that he had no right to destroy them, and sent him back to the cave to cool off.

Rebbi Shimon argued that in the Book of Joshua it says that “the words of the Torah should never leave your mouth, and if one studied, others would take care of earning a livelihood.” Rebbi Yishmael disagreed with Rebbi Shimon, and insisted that, as the Torah says, “You should gather in your corn, wine, and oil.”

A scholar’s life is admirable. We should all aspire to as much Torah study as we can. But most, even of the outwardly pious, are not suited to permanent study.

The secular world today has adopted both aspects of Greece: its intellectual exploration of the world around us and its morality of self-indulgence that offends everything that the Torah stands for. We should stand in contrast to it, morally. But scientifically, medically and technologically, we all benefit from it. Yet Haredi leadership, in principle, resists any secular education altogether. This cannot make sense.

Having studied Greek philosophy at Cambridge and Talmud in yeshivah, I can confirm that nothing is as mentally hard or demanding as Talmud studies “Lishma” (purely for its own sake). The problem is with the majority, who are neither gifted nor inclined to so.

This is why we can also see how hordes of so-called Talmudic scholars swarm onto the streets of religious enclaves to protest against what they see as assaults on their communities, when in fact requirements that governments try to impose are usually no more than attempts to protect them from their own unrealistic expectation that the rest of the world owes them a livelihood and protection.

Genuine scholars of the Talmud are not the ones out demonstrating, throwing stones, spitting or bullying. They do indeed study day and night. Ironically, that is why in their ivory towers they often appear oblivious to the realities of the world around them.

When I studied at Be’er Yaakov Yeshivah in Israel in the 1950s, there were two heads. The academic head was the Rosh Yeshivah, the brilliant mercurial Rav Moshe Shapiro. The Spiritual Head, the Mashgiah (often called the Dean) was Rav Shlomo Wolbe.

Both had been students at Mir in Lithuania. Rav Wolbe was serious, pensive and intense. Rav Wolbe went on to become the greatest voice of “Mussar — spiritual self-analysis — in the Jewish world and published several volumes of his intense religious outlook. Amongst his letters collected posthumously is this extract:

I was delving into the topic of Torah Im Dereh Eretz which is, ultimately, the foundation upon which live most Shomer Mitzvos in the world. We do not sufficiently relate to this approach, and the result of this is that many Bnei Yeshivah who eventually leave to engage in business and suchlike see this as a contradiction to the life of Torah, which is a great mistake. I head in the name of the Steipler that today’s effort to make people stay permanently in kollel is a horaas shaah (temporary decree), and Rav Chaim Kanievsky said that it is reasonable that his father said this. The basic path of the Torah is that a person works for a living and also establishes regular times for Torah study…”

Is it possible to have one without the other? That is the challenge we face today. Rav Wolbe thought we could. But then, he was a very special man, and there are no leaders of his stature in the Haredi world today — as it lurches ever more towards obscurantism.

How will this all play out? The Haredi world has already split into extreme factions. It has rejected so-called Modern Orthodoxy. It refuses to accept any other expression of Judaism as legitimate. It looks as though we might be heading toward a split similar to that which disrupted Judaism 2,000 years ago — and contributed to its near destruction.

Dead Sea Sects, Pharisees and Sadducees. Déjà vu?

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  • This article is so far off base, I wouldn’t know where to start criticizing it. I guess two basic points should be made.

    Firstly, there is no Chareidi “schism”. What the author describes as a schism is, quite literally, the historical mainstream, albeit divided since the 18th century (amongst Ashkenazim) into the two streams of chassidim and “misnagdim”.

    The Hirschian “Torah im Derech Eretz” community (which is only slightly connected to the Talmudic concept of “Torah im derech eretz”) developed in response to the rise of Reform Judaism to dominance in Germany. Thus, in the early 19th century, Frankfurt, later to become the center of “Torah im Derech Eretz”, was a chareidi center, with a chassidic rav, Rav Pinchas Horowitz, thattproduced such iconic chareidi figures as Rav Noson Adler and the Chasam Sofer. The rabbinic leaders of Torah im Derech Eretz, such as Rav Hirsch, Rav Salomon Breuer, Rav Joseph Breuer, Rav Shimon Schwab, always identified with the chareidi community. The founding of the chareidi umbrella organization, Agudath Israel, was largely organized by adherents to Torah im Derech Eretz.

    Secondly, the overwhelming majority of chareidim work for a living, even in Israel (where the issue of the military draft has generated a historically unusual situation). And the majority of chareidim get a basic secular education that meets the normal standards of the society in which they live. There are some exceptions to this, but they are exceptions.

    Perhaps more importantly, from the perspective of “schismatism”, is the fact that controversy over secular studies (which is quite distinct, even today, from the issue of working for a living) goes back to ancient times, and can be found explicitly expressed in the Talmud. There has never been a period when studying “Greek wisdom” was completely accepted in the Jewish world. Rabbinic figures, even indisputably great figures such as Maimonides, who engaged in such studies generated immense controversy both in their own times and in later generations.

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