Yes to the Ayalon Bridge on Shabbat, But No to the Eurovision Song Contest
On September 1, 2016, I published an essay discussing the crisis about people working on the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv railway on Shabbat.
I argued that if it would prevent car accidents, and would therefore indeed be a matter of life and death — Halachically called sakanat
My main argument was that Halacha demands of us, as Jews, to violate Shabbat in order to save the lives of human beings (Yoma 85b; Rambam, Mishneh Torah, Hilchot
At the time, I suggested turning this into a celebration and ensuring that those Jews working on the project would observe Shabbat as much as possible while working on this most holy day.
Here are some of the suggestions I had proposed: We should organize shacks at the work sites where some people will make kiddush and where a special Shabbat atmosphere will be created, and tasteful Shabbat meals — kept warm according to the laws of Shabbat — will be served. There would be alternate minyanim where the workers could hear the reading of the parasha (the weekly Torah portion) and say their Shabbat prayers in shifts.
In this way, we would show our fellow Israelis and the world that we respect and love Shabbat, but that it will not stand in the way of the sanctity of human life and the well-being of the state of Israel.
Although I was harshly criticized for these suggestions, I still stand by my opinion.
The great gaon (Talmudic genius) Rabbi Moshe Shmuel Glasner (1856-1924), former chief rabbi of Klausenburg, is best known as the author of Dor Revi’i, his remarkable commentary on Tractate Chulin. In his introduction to this work, he discussed the institution of the Oral Torah and the most unfortunate and dangerous undertaking to codify it, which led to the ossification of Halacha. He also suggested that we broaden the concept of pikuach nefesh and apply it not only to people who would actually die if we do not violate the Shabbat, but also to people who would be robbed of all their financial assets and become so poor that they could no longer live a decent life, which may be worse than being dead (Peticha 26a).
This, I believe, also applies to the State of Israel if its economic foundation would be undermined and could no longer function.
Obviously, such violations of Shabbat must be kept to a minimum and considered only when they really help to save lives and protect the state from disintegrating. Opening stores on Shabbat — if it’s nothing more than making life a little more convenient for some citizens — does not fall into this category. But when issues of great public need are at stake, another approach is required. There should be a governmental board consisting of experts and broad-minded, daring rabbis who are prepared to stick their necks out and who have great Halachic knowledge to decide on these matters.
To my utter joy, my suggestions were (partially) implemented by those who are now building a huge bridge over the Ayalon Highway in Tel Aviv. The building of this bridge requires the highway to be closed, which on weekdays will lead to absolute chaos with detrimental consequences.
Here you can see a short clip of a man wearing a helmet, making kiddush on Friday night while working on the bridge. Yes, I know he was reading the kiddush from his iPod and that the man who made the clip used his iPod as well, something I would have liked to prevent. But they celebrated Shabbat, and that’s reason enough for us to be most joyful, even if the situation is not yet perfect.
This brings me to another worrisome issue: the Shalva Band’s participation in the Israeli singing competition that will determine who will represent Israel at the Eurovision Song Contest in Tel Aviv this year.
Shalva, a magnificent organization founded in 1990 by Kalman and Malki Samuels, an Orthodox couple, has become a world-class institute that provides a range of services for people with disabilities and their families. This band, comprised of young adults with disabilities, has won the hearts of all Israelis, including the judges. (To watch one of their performances, click here.)
The performers all have disabilities. Dena and Annael are blind, Yair and Tal have Down syndrome, Yosef has Williams syndrome, and Guy is visually impaired. Band and music director Shai Ben-Shushan (percussionist) formed the group when he began volunteering at Shalva following a long recovery from a serious head injury sustained in IDF Special Forces combat. And Sarah, daughter of Shalva founders Kalman and Malki Samuels, enhances the band’s performance with her acoustic guitar. Despite their challenges, the Shalva Band’s performances are absolutely staggering, and their chances of winning are very high. They have already advanced to the finals.
There is only one major problem: Shabbat observance. All participants in the Eurovision Song Contest will have to be at rehearsals on Saturday for the competition. There are many technical issues involved that are hard to overcome, far beyond what the observer might be aware of. A “Shabbat-friendly microphone” is the least of all problems.
One of the most popular Israeli pop stars, Omer Adam, who had 51 million YouTube views last year with his song “Shnei Meshugaim” (“Two Crazy People”), turned down an invitation to perform at the Eurovision contest, since it would involve violating Shabbat. He is not religiously observant, but makes a point of not working on Shabbat.
We can only stand in awe of Adam, who understands that there is something called Jewish pride, and that Shabbat is too important to be violated under these conditions. The same is true about the Shalva Band.
However much money Israel may make from hosting Eurovision, it is absolutely wrong and shameful that Israel’s leadership will allow violation of Shabbat on this occasion. It is self-evident that this has nothing to do with pikuach nefesh. Israel should put its foot down and cancel the Eurovision Song Contest if its organizers are not prepared to find a solution so that Israel can keep its head high and show the world what it means to stand for one’s principles; to protect its main religious institution; and to allow the Shalva Band to perform. The world would be deeply impressed, and that is worth more than all the money in the world. Many secular Israelis would fully agree.
It’s hard to overstate what would happen if the Shalva Band were to win and represent Israel at the Eurovision. It would give all special-needs children throughout the world a huge boost. Israel would be lauded for its huge accomplishment, and the sanctity of Shabbat would shine for all to see.
Rumor has it that there is still hope for things to work out well for Shalva, and that if they win, the “powers that be” will agree to compromise with regard to rehearsals.
We are reminded of the words of the great Abraham Joshua Heschel:
He who wants to enter the holiness of the [Sabbath] day must first lay down the profanity of clattering commerce, of being yoked to toil. He must go away from the screech of dissonant days, from the nervousness and fury of acquisitiveness and the betrayal in embezzling his own life. He must say farewell to manual work and learn to understand that the world has already been created and will survive without the help of man. Six days a week we wrestle with the world, wringing profit from the earth; on the Sabbath we especially care for the seed of eternity planted in the soul. The world has our hands, but our soul belongs to Someone Else.
So, Yes to the Ayalon Bridge, and No to the Eurovision Song Contest if it means that Shabbat will be violated.
Rabbi Dr. Nathan Lopes Cardozo is the Founder and Dean of the David Cardozo Academy, as well as the author of 13 books and numerous articles in both English and Hebrew. Hailing from the Netherlands, Rabbi Cardozo is known for his original and often fearlessly controversial insights into Judaism.